Thursday, August 27, 2020
School year kickoff occasion Training is significant for everybody in the general public. Instruction guarantees the future for youthful and old, and furthermore the future society. The discussion about instruction is additionally exceptionally applicable on the politically plan, in America, yet additionally in Denmark. Instruction is almost consistently a need on the plan. Also, Obama continues making discourses about the significance of getting and training. Be that as it may, does the reasonable American mentality change the message in ObamasÃ¢â¬â¢ discourse? In the southern state Virginia in a town considered Arlington the leader of the United States, Barack Obama, held a discourse in the time of 2009, on the eighth September. In the discourse he focused on the significance of training and learning. It was communicated to understudies everywhere throughout the nation of any age so as to get his assertion out: Ã¢â¬Å"If you quit on school Ã¢â¬ youÃ¢â¬â¢re not simply stopping on yourself, youÃ¢â¬â¢re st opping on your country.Ã¢â¬ This sentence truly sets the plan for Barack ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s discourse. By perusing this individuals imagines that the whole eventual fate of the nation is relying upon them and their inclusion. Furthermore, obviously this is the response that Obama is anticipating. The sentiment of significance will cheerful inspires understudies to work more earnestly for a more promising time to come. The sythesis isn't hard to comprehend. The discourse has a basic structure, which begins with a short presentation prevailing by the fundamental message of his discourse. He is supporting it by utilizing various contentions and type of bid. He is blending a lot of tales about himself and his life as a youthful understudy. In the closure there is a short summery of everything that has been referenced up until this point. As I have referenced in the abovementioned, the discourse is coordinated towards understudies all things considered. Hence is the language straightforward and reasonable for both youthful and old understudies. He keeps it formal with a touch of easygoing. In the start of the discourse Barack Obama decides to begin with Ã¢â¬Å"howÃ¢â¬â¢s everyone doing today?Ã¢â¬ Here he lays the right foundation and affirms that he is simply not an influential man but rather additionally that he is equivalent. By deciding to deliver straightforwardly to the understudies and notice pretty much every evaluation and giving a feeling of commonality, he doesn't speak condescendingly to the crowd, and it shows a sort of sympathy. It catches the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s consideration. In this sentence there emerges consideration from Obama to all the understudies: Ã¢â¬Å"And for those of you in kindergarten, or beginning center or secondary school, itÃ¢â¬â¢s your first day in another school, (Ã¢â¬ ¦). I envision there are a few seniors out there who are feelingÃ¢ pretty acceptable at this moment, (Ã¢â¬ ¦)Ã¢â¬ Obama is likewise utilizing a few statements, which advances to the youthful perusers. By recounting to the tale of him when he was a kid and would not like to rise right on time to be self-taught by his mom he explain that he isn't a normal man. When he resembled every single normal understudy. For example, alluding to the Xbox shows that Barack Obama is inside a similar social edge of refer ence as the youthful understudies. The three intrigue structures are totally utilized in the discourse: feeling, logos and ethos. Barack Obama utilizes the feeling to associate with the youthful understudies, so he can disclose to them how he encounters the significant of training. Particular he utilizes the tenderness, when he is discussing a portion of the understudies who are making some hard memories taking a training. At the point when he recounts to his very own portion stories, he likewise offers to the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s tenderness. By saying that he made some hard memories as well, the understudies acknowledge or envision that it tends to be conceivable to acquire something important in their lives. In this sentence the sentiment is clearly: Ã¢â¬Å"We need each and every one of you (Ã¢â¬ ¦)Ã¢â¬ Obama likewise utilizes logos in his discourse; he utilizes it to speak to the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s rationale. He says in his discourse, that a decent training is significant for having a great job. In any event he utilizes ethos by focusing on how significant a training is for the individuals, yet in addition for the nation. The accompanying sentence shows the utilization of the interests, particular feeling and ethos: Ã¢â¬Å"The story of America isnÃ¢â¬â¢t about individuals who quit when things got intense. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a people who continued onward, who invested more energy, who cherished their nation an excessive amount to do anything short of their best.Ã¢â¬ The contentions in the discourse are dependable, on the grounds that he carries out his responsibility. He attempts to persuade individuals about the significant of training, and he is working admirably. He utilizes models from reality, and like I have referenced previously, he persuades the understudies of that they get the chance to be as Jazmin, Andoni and Shantell, on the grounds that it is that value. The message in the disc ourse is clear and obvious: Work hard! Get decent training! Training is the way to finding a decent line of work and steady employments guarantee a future for the individual and the nation. To finish up he expresses that he knows about how troublesome and cruel life here and there can be and that he has h advertisement inconveniences himself yet that it is conceivable to break the negative social legacy. He concedes that somebody over other have it more terrible due to their social, social or money related capitals yet as Obama pronounce Ã¢â¬Å"ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s no reason for not tryingÃ¢â¬ . Furthermore, on the off chance that we look on its political piece, this is a run of the mill American worth. Indeed Barack Obama even discussions about theÃ American dream, which depends on the adage Ã¢â¬Å"everyone is the engineer of his own fortune.Ã¢â¬ Yes, the discourse has an extremely American demeanor and view on life, yet as we as a whole in all actuality information will show the world the best approach to significance.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Louis D. Rubin On Ode To The Confederate Dead Essay, Research Paper Louis D. Rubin, Jr. That section structure is # 8216 ; about # 8217 ; solipsism, a philosophical way of thinking which says that we make the universe in the demonstration of appreciating it ; or about Narcissism, or whatever other principle that indicates the disappointment of the human character to work impartially in nature and society. That stanza structure, as Tate proceeds to state about the Ode to the Confederate Dead, is other than about a grown-up male ending at the door of a Confederate burial ground on a pre-winter evening. Along these lines the grown-up male at the burial ground and the Gravess in the memorial park become the image of the solipsism and the Self-love: Harvest time is pulverization in the mystery plan Of a 1000 sections of land where these recollections develop From the boundless natural structures that are non Dead, yet feed the grass push after rich column. Think about the fall that have traveled every which way! An image is something that represents something different. We will compose a custom exposition test on Louis D Rubin On or then again any comparative point explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page What I need to make is to demonstrate out a portion of the connections between the something and the something else. Richard Weaver has composed of the Nashville Agrarians that they experienced a distinctive kind of apprenticeship for their from this point forward works. They served the Muse of poesy. From a specific perspective that is valid, yet the word apprenticeship is misleading in Tate # 8217 ; s case. Allen Tate did non go a writer basically so as to larn step by step instructions to be an Agrarian. He was an artist while he was an Agrarian ; he kept on being a writer after his particular contribution in Agrarianism lessened, and now he has gotten a functioning communicant of the Roman Catholic Church and he is as yet an artist. One must take a firm stand that for Allen Tate poesy has neer been the apprenticeship for anything aside from poesy. Figure to yourself a grown-up male ending at the door of a Confederate burial ground. . . , Tate writes in his article Narcissus as Narcissus. He proceeds: . . . he delays for a churrigueresque theory on the ravagings of clasp, dissuading the figure of the # 8216 ; dazzle crab. # 8217 ; This creature has versatility however no chance, vitality yet from the human purpose of position, no deliberate universe to use it in. . . . The crab is the first trace of the idea of the ethical battle whereupon the play of the refrain structure creates: the cut-off-ness of the advanced # 8216 ; discerning grown-up male # 8217 ; from the universe. The brutal marvel of a blessed messenger # 8217 ; s gaze Turns you, similar to them, to lapidate, Changes the hurl air Till dove into a heavier universe underneath You switch your ocean space aimlessly Hurling, turning like the visually impaired crab. In the event that the Confederate Ode depends on an ethical battle influencing the cut-off-ness of the advanced # 8216 ; discerning grown-up male # 8217 ; from the universe, for what reason did Tate pick as his image the Confederate burial ground? The answer lies in the historical backdrop of the part in which Allen Tate and his kindred Fugitives and Agrarians grew up. Tate was conceived and raised in the Upper South, and he went to school in Nashville, Tennessee, and at that spot was an imagery in the South of his twenty-four hours cook for the solicitation. It was the differentiation, and battle, between what the South was and generally had been, and what it was be givening toward. With the war of 1914-1918 the South returned the universe, Tate has composed, # 8212 ; however gave a regressive look as it ventured over the limit line: that retrogressive impression gave us the Southern Renaissance, a writing aware of the days gone by in the present. What kind of state was the South whereupon Tate and his coevalss of the early 1920s glanced back at each piece great as saw around them? It was premier of each of the a state with significant chronicled awareness, with rather all the more inclination for convention and habits than existed somewhere else in the state. There had been a common war only a little over a 50 years prior, and the South had been seriously beaten. Thereafter Southern pioneers chosen to imitate the methods of the vanquisher, and required a New South of metropoliss and factories. Such Southern erudite people as there were obliged the procedure. Work power of letters like Walter Hines Page and John Spencer Bassett lectured that one time the provincialism of the Southern author was distracted, and the Southern grown-up male of letters was ready to cover Appomattox Court House and Chickamauga, so Southern writing would come into its ain. At the point when it came to computing an artistic Renaissance in the South. Bassett furthermore, his companions were splendidly right, yet they could non hold been increasingly misinformed about the signifier that it would take. What realized the Renaissance # 8212 ; what there was in the cut and topographic point that made conceivable an Allen Tate and a William Faulkner and a Donald Davidson and a John Ransom and a Robert Penn Warren and an Andrew Lytle and three twelve other Southern creators # 8212 ; was non the excited ability to chimp the methods of the Modern East, however rather the offensiveness against the need of holding to make so in request to populate among their kindred Southerners. By 1920 and thus the South was changing, so Tate # 8217 ; s present day Southerner remaining at the entryway of a Confederate military burial ground had to think about what John Spencer Bassett had one time named the ragged out musings of a dismissed framework with what had supplanted that framework. Furthermore, what had taken its topographic point was what Tate and his individual Agrarians have been yelling out against ever since: the mechanical. monetarily disapproved of current civilisation, in which confidence and custom and convention and request were rapidly being supplanted by the love of securing and dispensing. Subsequently the Confederate graveyard as the point for solipsism, and the disappointment of the human character to work equitably in nature and society, on the grounds that for Tate there could be no request about where the juvenile Southern creator should remain in the issue. The farming network that had been the Southern way of life was with all its botches enormously wanted to what was taking topographic point now. As he wrote in 1936, the Southern grown-up male of letters can non permit himself to view the old framework from a carefully cultural purpose of position, or from the financial position ; to him it must look better than the framework that obliterated it, better, too much, than any framework with which the advanced contrivers, Marxian or any shading, wish to supplant the current request. Looking over the brave days of old what's more, the vacant these days, the youthful Southerner could just experience himself in segregation from what were presently his part # 8217 ; s ways. In the expressions of the Confederate Ode, What will we state who tally our yearss and bow Our caputs with a commemorial languishing In the ribboned layers of inflexible aptness, What will we say to the castanetss, messy, Whose verdurous anonymity will turn? The worn out weaponries, the battered caputs and eyes Lost in these bequests of the crazy viridity? The dark slender arachnids come, they go back and forth ; In a knot of willows without noticeable radiation The striking shriek owl # 8217 ; s tight Undetectable verse seeds the head With the brutal murmur of their valor. We will state simply the foliages Flying, plunge and lapse We will state simply the foliages murmuring In the far-fetched fog of sundown That flies on different wing. . . . We are, that is, deficient, cut off, stray ; we can non even consider how it was. All we can see is the foliages blowing about the tombstones. So Mr. Tate # 8217 ; s present day Southerner felt. The Ode to the Confederate Dead dates from around 1926, and that was the twelvemonth, Tate reviews, that he and john Crowe Ransom started hesitating with the idea of making something about the Southern situation, an endeavor which in no time prompted programs for the book entitled I # 8217 ; ll Take My Stand, wherein Tate, Ransom, and ten different Southerners put forward Agrarian promoters for what they felt was a dynamically industrialized, continuously deluded South. The cardinal explanation was expressed in the first passage of the introduction, which Ransom formed and to which all the members gave quiet submission: All the articles bear in a similar sense upon the book # 8217 ; s title-subject: all will in general back up a Southern way of life as against what might be known as the American or, prevailing way ; and all every piece much as concur that the best footings in which to represent the separation are contained in the expression, Agrarian versus Industrial. The activity that the 12 Agrarians felt faced the cutting edge South was the equivalent work, along these lines, as that which Mr. Tate # 8217 ; s present day grown-up male at the graveyard entryway confronted. What's more, in a extremely unequivocal sense, I # 8217 ; ll Take My Stand spoke to their proposals for a arrangement, in an impossible to miss cut and topographic point, of the cardinal good activity of the Ode to the Confederate Dead. The Agrarians proclaimed in their discussion that industrialism was pillaging, in that it depended on a develop of nature as something to be utilized. In so making, industrialism tossed grown-up male out of his appropriate relationship to nature, and to God whose innovative action it was. The Agrarian wrangle, they announced, was with applied logical control, which in the signifier of mechanical entrepreneur economy had as its article the imprisonment of h
Friday, August 21, 2020
Job Enrichment The management technique of job enrichment has its roots in the 1950s and 1960s psychology but its relevance still prevails. Based on the power of personal satisfaction and by using special motivators, jobs have been redesigned to become genuinely motivating and trigger a better performance.Itâs not even just a theory: several studies and experimental initiatives have proved that job enrichment is indeed able to bring benefits to both the employee and the organization. © Shutterstock.com | Sunny studioIn this article, we take a closer look at what exactly job enrichment contains, what are its benefits and limitations to the employee and the company. Allowing that, overall, it is a valid method for motivating the workforce, we dive deeper by presenting the guiding principles behind the theory, a three-step technique to help introduce it, and some best practices to set a good example.THE 3Wâs OF JOB ENRICHMENTWhat?Job enrichment is a method for redesigning jobs, a motivation technique that aims at making work more interesting and challenging for the employees. It mainly consists of giving more responsibility than what originally applied to the job, creating opportunities for professional growth and recognition.The concept that people might perform better if their job is motivating enough was first introduced in 1968, in a Harvard Business Review article by Frederick Herzberg. During his research, the author, a psychologist found that there are dif ferent factors motivating and demotivating people in the workplace, and they work quite separately from each other. According to Herzbergâs motivation-hygiene theory, a bad working environment with too much supervision, bad relationships, and working conditions decreases motivation (hygiene factors). But the opposite of it is not true: if all these external factors are taken care of, it still doesnât make the workers more motivated.Instead, he found the motivation of the workforce is only increased by internal factors (motivators), such as achievement and recognition, responsibility, or advancement and growth.Hence Henzberg believed that managers should make sure they are adding motivators besides improving the job environment because satisfaction will only come in a healthy surrounding.Where (and where not)?There are three major types of job design methods. Besides job enrichment, management might also opt for a job enlargement or job rotation. The aim of the three is similar: to keep the employees challenged and to prevent them from boredom caused by repetitive tasks.Contrary to the vertical nature of job enrichment due to the raised level of challenge, job enlargement tries to enrich jobs by giving more tasks, i.e. in a horizontal manner.It is a technique commonly applied in times of recession. The newly added tasks are not any more challenging than the old ones but the sheer amount and novelty of them is supposed to better satisfy the workersâ needs. However, many times it is just an extra workload that drains the employeeâs energy resources.The other method, job rotation is based on variety rather than quantity or quality: the employees are taking turns doing different jobs for short periods of time and get different but similarly challenging tasks. It helps the workers learn new skills and appreciate othersâ works, but sometimes itâs just not enough to satisfy higher ambitions or to deepen someoneâs expertise.Why?The purpose of using job en richment for motivation is to give the employee a clear meaning of his or her function so that it gives more satisfaction. From a business perspective, this is important because satisfied employees are generally more productive and more loyal â" a financial gain and a financial saving (of replacing them) for the enterprise.Besides, reducing repetition of tasks, the first action point of job enrichment, instantly makes the job less boring, more enjoyable, and improves productivity with self-driven employees.BENEFITS AND LIMITATIONSFor the employeeThe benefits for the employees can be best summarized by the Hackman Oldham job characteristics model: according to this, reaching the psychological states of the meaningfulness of work, responsibility, and the knowledge of outcomes will make a person highly motivated.To meet these needs, jobs can be designed with the five job characteristics in mind: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. Such motivation techniques can increase job satisfaction.Benefits in detail:Meaningful work: A work that has a clear purpose, be it from the perspective of the organization or that of the individual, is the best way to increase satisfaction. This is usually a result of using the right combination of the individualâs skills and talents also called empowerment because it gives room to ambitions, reduces the risk of boredom, and fulfills the higher order needs of the individual. The task must be one that can be perceived as a whole (the work process has a definite beginning and end) so that finishing it can be perceived as an accomplishment for the individual, and that this task is clearly a part of something bigger. The contribution to a comprehensible outcome and the sense of belonging to a (workplace) community also make work meaningful.Responsibility: Higher-level jobs are characterized by giving the workers more freedom in choosing when and how they would like to complete their tasks. It helps them to learn complementary skills and make them feel more competent, more expert in their field. When a person is made responsible, a successfully completed task will improve their chances of recognition, which, again, fulfills a higher order need.Knowledge of outcomes: An individual who knows what his or her efforts turn into, or how his or her mistakes effect the overall performance, will more likely be motivated. Feedback plays an important part in creating this knowledge: whether it comes from a co-worker or a manager, it helps the employees decided if they got closer to the desired outcome or not.Advancement: Job enrichment gives tools to the employee to improve their skills and learn new ones, many times even managerial ones. If they are ambitious enough, the positive feedback will be a motivation to advance, and the new competencies make them more confident to take opportunities. People with proven skills are generally presented with better career opportunities.Limitations:E go problem: Different personalities react differently to having power. While for some employees means an appreciation and, simply, more responsibility, others will use their new status to try to rule or discipline their co-workers. Giving senior powers to junior employees might also hurt the ego of more experienced professionals or the managers, who can have the impression that the power is not only shared but taken away from them. So job enlargement might cause workplace issues and disturb the lives of accustomed teams.Being uncomfortable with decision-making: The opposite of the ego problem, when the employees whose jobs have been enriched with managerial tasks, are not comfortable to make serious decisions every day. These people will not be empowered by this job design, but rather, discouraged by their lack of skills. While one of the main purposes or advantages of job enrichment can be the early spotting of future leaders, there will be some who, eventually, fall out of the sie ve.Possible dissatisfaction with the organization: When deciding to enrich jobs at the organizations, managers also have to make sure they add some contextual elements in order to prevent dissatisfaction. As in the original theory of Herzberg, if the work environment is not satisfying because the organization does not provide the necessary elements, the workers will be dissatisfied regardless of their jobs being enriched or not.For the companyEmployees usually feel valuable when assigned more responsibility and autonomy, so they are more likely to go the extra mile.Benefits in details:Reduced absence days or turnover of staff: Employees who find their jobs satisfying will not want to escape their duties, while those who are not motivated will use every chance to skip work, on purpose or by producing psychosomatic symptoms. Furthermore, workers who are given the right amount of responsibility and autonomy will not want to leave, and a low turnover sends a good message about the compa ny to the labor market. Not to mention the time of the hiring staff saved for other purposes.Reduced hiring and training costs: A low turnover also means that the costs of hiring and training can be kept low. It is not to be ignored when an average US company spends anywhere from 6 to 9 months of the previous workerâs salary, or 3,000-10,000 USD, on hiring-related activities (job adverts, interviews, screening, onboarding), not to mention training (another 10-20% of the yearly salary over the course of the first years), and it will take time for him or her to reach the productivity level of those who left.Reduced upper management workloads: When workers are given autonomy, it reduces the need for the management to control and motivate them â" so some of the most time-intensive tasks.Help to select future managers: Ambitious employees thrive when given more responsibility and put in a situation where they can prove their qualities. This is also a gain for the organization, because they can see which of their workers are capable of leading others, without running the risk of promoting someone who is unsuited for a managerial role.Improved corporate morale: A job enrichment is an act of trust in oneâs skills, and employees who are trusted act more professionally and are generally more motivated. Their positive attitude will create a better working environment, encouraging all to keep up.Improved productivity: Allowing for creativity and personalization is one of the major drivers of job satisfaction â" just what businesses aim to achieve with job enrichment. Luckily, the same satisfaction is also a driver itself, of productivity, and that is an argument that a for-profit business cannot ignore.Giving people more responsibility by enriching their job is an efficiency-booster: Especially in organizations with several levels of managerial hierarchy, employees that can take over managerial tasks create a more efficient organizational structure. With less manage ment levels, the business is easier to operate and every decision about where to expand is easier to make.Limitations:It is not suitable for all: The original job enrichment theory of Henzberg was created with a large corporation in mind, but also for a limited number of people (essentially the self-driven ones) who can qualify for such a program. Later studies questioned that the method was suitable for other types of workers and organizations.Responsibility levels donât match employee skills: Not all people crave for more responsibility at work, and even if some of them do, they might not all have the skills to deal with such a n increased liability. Leaders who cannot properly assess skill levels and enrich the jobs of those who are unable to cope with this pressure might do more harm than good.Wrongly assessed new workload: It takes a good manager to assess what workload is appropriate for each type of people. Job enrichment, although mainly focusing on adding quality, might a lso increase the quantity of work required from an individual to an untenable level. Besides, when itâs taken from someone elseâs workload, it might leave those workers (or managers) doing less than they could.Unintentionally or intentionally increased monitoring: In order to measure the effects of job enrichment, monitoring might be increased, which leads to dissatisfaction, counteracting the positive effects of the enrichment.TIPS AND TECHNIQUES FOR ENRICHING JOBSPrinciplesAlso called as vertical loading, some major principles will define what needs to be done during the job design to make it enriched:Brainstorm potential changes, apply certain principles (learn more about job design): Henzberg suggested to start the process with making a list of the possible options a job can be enriched with.A higher level of reporting (for a more senior audience),a variety of specialized tasks related to a certain profession,allowing an employee to oversee and work on a complete workflow,g iving extra training or other incentivesThe point is to make the employee more accountable but also increasing his or her chance for success. Besides that, being enriched means different things for different personality types, hence the purpose of listing and assorting them.Caring, leadership, people-first culture needed: The whole organization, not just certain managers, has to be ready to enrich jobs. In order to prepare for a vertical job design, companies has to have a people-focused approach built from the ground up. They really have to believe that the human workforce is their most important asset. Then it will not sound strange to announce that creating better lives for them is a legit business goal. This approach sparks new energies because the employees interiorize these values and start to look at work in another way: as a means for personal growth.Recognize positive contributions: Feedback is an absolutely necessary tool for applying the most important principle: positive reinforcement. This is how your employees will know they are on to making a meaningful contribution to the organization. Without it, the responsibility is just pressure and the challenge is just an obstacle, and the employees will lost their interest in professional growth.Eliminate dissatisfaction: Along the lines of the above cultural principles, when the whole organization has adopted the right mindset, this should be the first step of your action plan. Dissatisfaction can be caused by poor company policies, non-adequate supervision, an unsupportive team, job insecurity, or non-competitive salaries and wages. These are objective and technical issues that should be solved before any kind of motivation technique could be applied.Create more satisfaction: Give the selected employees autonomy to make certain decisions and authority to be able to enforce them. Such level of control over what they do and how they do it increases satisfaction by reinforcing their belief in their own ab ilities. The application of news skills and successfully completed tasks of various challenge levels pushes them further the upward spiral.Make sure you recognize your employees contrbutions. Three-step techniqueEffort to performance: The first step in establishing job enrichment is to make sure the efforts of the workforce can be translated to actual performance measures. This starts with the communication of clear goals, on an individual level as well as on the company level, in order to steer the efforts in the right direction and to let everyone know what they are working for. If the necessary resources (infrastructure, communication and support) to work towards these goals are also available, and employees are encouraged to share and improve, it will have a positive effect on productivity. The ultimate goal is with this step is to internalize motivation, so increased performance is born out of commitmentPerformance to reward: Just as with the goals, a business should define pre cisely what the rewards for good performance will be. Other than reaching a goal, a reward is a common motivator and it can not only be financial, but it will surely have to fit the employeeâs needs. With an increased autonomy, they can then decide for themselves which rewards are worth pursuing and how much more are they willing to put in their work to achieve them. Extra pay, paid time-off, flexible working options, or prizes, paid training or higher education are incentives worth to give a try.Reward to satisfaction: Material and immaterial rewards are both able to bring satisfaction to the employee. If asked, they will be able to tell what rewards specifically will accomplish its purpose in job enrichment. Belonging to a community, for example, has always been something that fills people with a sense of well-being. Growth is also interpretable on a social and on a personal level.Best practicesNo matter how idealistic it may sound, job enrichment is an actual and valid tool for the management to improve business outcomes. Letâs see some practical examples of what an organization can do to make work a better place:Quality circles: Quality circles are teams of workers who help each solve problems and find constructive solutions related to their work quality. Through regular discussion sessions led by a supervisor, they can analyze a certain situation and come up with suggestions for improvement. The involvement in such discussions increases the sense of authority over oneâs job while finding solutions are rewarding experiences that also strengthen the bond among coworkers. Originated in Japanese manufacturing, the method started to spread in the US in the 1990âs, and although its popularity has decreased in the early 2000âs, it is still considered an effective technique for job enrichment.Self-directed teams: Self-directed work teams go one step beyond quality circles because they are not only suggesting solutions and methods and they are not a loo se group. In fact, they are engaged together in day-to-day operations and solve problems just like management would do, using a common set of previously discussed rules as a guideline. This way, everyone in these teams can be empowered with authority and feel the consequences of the teamâs decisions â" and the output is a definite improvement in quality.Information-sharing: Transparency and regular collaboration among the colleagues are the base job enrichment should be built upon. Those individuals who share and are able to access work-related information can be more aware of the tasks of other jobs, help out other workers easier, and can get feedback about their own work more easily. Personal growth is facilitated by the power of community again, to allow for more autonomy, authority, and recognition for the individual.
Monday, May 25, 2020
BrooksÃ¢â¬â¢ Universal Issues and the Appeal to a Broad Audience BrooksÃ¢â¬â¢ poetry, so rich in personal detail and authenticity, often does not have to justify the moral side of issues like other poems usually do. Her work, for me, seems less confessional and more like realistic humanity, a difficult feat to accomplish when so much of the material speaks of inner turmoil, lost loves, and wistful sadness. Honest in tone and filled with common and often disturbing themes, the poems were ones I was able to connect with. Ã¢â¬Å"The MotherÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Sundays of Satin Legs SmithÃ¢â¬ are two poems that speak to me in terms of universal longing and pain. I have never had an abortion, but I know several people who have. In fact, last year I had an 11th-gradeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Although it seems paradoxical to love someone and then kill him, Brooks makes it easy for readers to believe that this is what the speaker actually did. She writes of those special moments that only a mother can understand: Ã¢â¬Å"scuttle off ghostsÃ¢â¬ ¦control [the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s] luscious sighÃ¢â¬ ¦return for a snack of them with gobbling mother-eyeÃ¢â¬ (8-10). A mother will brave ghosts and monsters (real or imagined) for her child, and sometimes it takes amazing self-control to simply stop staring in disbelief at the beauty of the child you have created. When my son was a baby, I used to sit behind him and just breathe in his lavender baby-smell. I felt like I could Ã¢â¬Å"gobble him up,Ã¢â¬ and I still do Ã¢â¬â but he, of course, wonÃ¢â¬â¢t let me now. At 8-years-old he is a Ã¢â¬Å"big boy.Ã¢â¬ Brooks has somehow made the reader remember and re-live the good and beautiful aspects of having a baby; and yet, the poem is about abortion. By creating such a nostalgic mood in the reader, Brooks again takes the focus off of the terrible act of murder and waits until the second stanza to address the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s regrets. With the nostalgic mood carrying over from stanza-one, the shift in stanza two works because the reader has already forgiven the persona for her sins. And yet, in answer to the readers who still have a difficult time accepting the harsh reality of the poem, Brooks makes a convincing argument in this second stanza, claiming that she still thinks about her babies, sheShow MoreRelatedMethods of Qualitative of Data Collection19658 Words Ã |Ã 79 Pages99 Data Collection Methods 99 categories or strict observational checklists. In this way, the researcher is able to discover the recurring patterns of behavior and relationships. After these patterns are identified and described through early analysis of field notes, checklists become more appropriate and context-sensitive. Focused observation then is used at later stages of the study, usually to see, for example, if analytic themes explain behavior and relationships over a long time or in a varietyRead MoreKhasak14018 Words Ã |Ã 57 PagesMonday, 26 October 2009 Preface This dissertation titled ART AS A RENDEZVOUS OF MYTH AND MIND: A PSYCHOANALYTIC AND MYTHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF O V VIJAYANÃ¢â¬â¢S THE LEGENDS OF KHASAK explores how the judicious selection and use of literary theory can account for the universal appeal of The Legends of Khasak, a belated self translated rendering of a famous regional work in Malayalam, Khasakkinte Ithihasam authored by the eminent writer O V Vijayan, and thus assert its artistic value. Divided into fourRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 Pagesfor mid-career contributions from the Organizational Behavior Division of the Academy of Management. In 2007, he received the Professional Practice Award from the Institute of Industrial and Labor Relations, University of Illinois. Books Published: H. G. Heneman III, T. A. Judge, and J. D. Kammeyer-Mueller, Staffing Organizations, 7th ed. (Madison, WI: Mendota House/Irwin, 2 011) Other Interests Although he cannot keep up (literally!) with Dr. RobbinÃ¢â¬â¢s accomplishments on the track, Dr. Judge enjoysRead MoreRastafarian79520 Words Ã |Ã 319 PagesJack Anthony Johnson-Hill, by viewing the essence of Rastafari as an experience of liminalityÃ¢â¬âthat is, a threshold experience of leaving Ã¢â¬Å"BabylonÃ¢â¬ but not yet arriving in the Ã¢â¬Å"promised landÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âhas eliminated the possibility of routinization.7 Neville G. Callam argues that the movement has gained a kind of Ã¢â¬Å"functionalÃ¢â¬ routinization, partly through its ability to adapt itself to Ã¢â¬Å"contextual exigenciesÃ¢â¬ and partly because of the accommodating strategies used by the established order to defuse the Rastafarian
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Abstract Back pain is considered as one of the most common medical problems in America. Various literature and research findings reveal that, out of ten Americans, at least eight will experience back pain at some point in their life. This paper critically analyzes back pain as a medical problem, highlighting its traditional and alternative medical options. Various credible sources of information are critically analyzed herein, in an endeavor to develop the skills of rational evaluation of the medical information. Introduction Back pain ranges from a dull ache to a sudden sharp pain that makes movement not easy. It starts quickly as a result of muscle strain and gets worse slowly. However, most back pains heal quickly in a matter of weeks or months. Back pain can either be acute or chronic. Acute pain starts quickly and lasts for less than 6 weeks, while chronic pain lasts for more than twelve weeks (three months) and is less common. Human back is comprised of several complex structures of muscles, tendons, ligaments, disks and bones. A problem with any of the components can lead to back pain. The most common causes of back pain are strain and structural problems. Ã Strain results from muscle spasm, strained muscles and ligaments, abrupt and awkward movement, lifting a heavy object, or improperly lifting something. Structural problems include ruptured disks, bulging disks, sciatica, and abnormal curvature of the spine, arthritis, and osteoporosis. Other causes include infection of the spine, cauda equina syndrome, bad mattress, and everyday activities and/or poor posture. In most cases, diagnosis includes physical examination and interview. However, image scans are required in some rare cases. Tests may be ordered if the pain is suspected to arise from an injury to the back or an underlying cause. The image scans include X-rays, MRI or CT scans, bone scan, and electromyography or EMG. These scans are conducted for suspected disk, tendon, nerve, and other problems. Traditional methods of diagnosis, which are still applied to date, include visual inspection, touching, slow and rhythmic stretching or mobilization, manipulation of muscles and joints, and pressure or indirect techniques. Treatment Two approaches are used in the treatment of back pain: the traditional (physical) approach, and the medical approach. Described herein is a critical evaluation of the approaches, the advantages and disadvantages of each, and a conclusion on the best approach. Traditional treatment The traditional approaches used in treating back pain are physical therapy and massage therapy. Physical therapy begins with the diagnosis or an evaluation of the situation through touching, visual inspection, stretching, manipulation of muscles and joints, and pressure or indirect techniques. The treatment includes application of heat, ice, muscle-release techniques, and ultrasound and electrical stimulation, to the back muscles and soft tissues. As the pain subsides, some strengthening and flexibility exercises may be introduced for the back muscles. It also includes the techniques that improve the posture, and the patient is encouraged to regularly practice these techniques even after the pain has stopped in order to prevent its reoccurrence. A manual physical therapy principally employs the use of hand, is more thorough, and focuses on the body as a whole unit. A modern popular physical therapy is the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) which uses the TENS machine. The machine delivers electric pulses into the body, which consequently encourages the body to produce more endorphins. However, this approach is not appropriate for those with epilepsy, pregnant women, people with history of heart diseases, and those with a pacemaker. Physical therapy, however, does not show the root cause of the pain, even if a comprehensive evaluation is carried out. The pain can therefore be reduced, but the root cause is rarely addressed. Massage therapy is commonly used and can greatly work for most patients, if done correctly (Mueller 2002; Palkhivala 2001). However, it is not a substitute for medication. A variety of techniques are used during the massage session such as stretching and energy techniques. Various benefits are associated with massage. It improves blood circulation, which consequently helps in the recovery of muscle soreness. It also helps in relaxing muscles, and leads to increases the levels of endorphin. Endorphins are the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s chemicals that manage chronic pain. Generally, massage decreases back pain, decreases depression, and improves a range of motion for various joints. It also improves sleep. By improving blood circulation, massage helps in removing inflammation and causes great relaxation and relief. Massage sessions are conducted on a one-on-one basis, giving the victim an opportunity to converse with the specialist (therapist). Though very helpful as it seems, the scope of massage is limited and cannot address the problems of back pain fully. Just as the physical therapy, it does not identify or address the root cause of the pain. In most cases, back pain results from physical conditions, which require physical solutions. Postural dysfunctions and muscle imbalances cannot be identified by this approach. Besides, massaging does not give room for the development of very specific, targeted action plans to correct back pain and restore the harmony of the body. The Medical Treatment In most cases, the treatment of back pain does not involve medical help. Pain is mostly reduced by over-the-counter painkillers, without any prescription. If the pain does not respond to the painkillers, then non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), muscle relaxants, tricyclic anti-depressants, and narcotics, may be prescribed. The truth of the matter, however, is that these medications do not identify or solve the underlying problems (root causes). Besides, their side effects are worse. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as Advil, Naprosyn, Motrin, Aleve and aspirin are most likely to cause drug interaction problems with the blood pressure medication. This may consequently result in blood clots, heat attacks and ear ringing. Muscle relaxants such as Soma, Valium and Flexeril are habit forming and can interfere with antidepressants. The side effects are depression, insomnia, irregular heart beat, paralysis, hallucinations, and chest pain. The side effects of tricyclic anti-depressants, such as Norpramin, Elavil and Endep, are blurred vision, chest pain, insomnia, pounding heartbeat, and allucinations. Narcotics such as Oxycodone, Codeine, Morphine and Hydrocodone are habitual and interact with tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, and other types of pain relievers. The side effects are drowsiness, fainti ng, loss of appetite, hallucinations, slow heartbeat, convulsions and dry mouth. Based on the side effects of these drugs and the fact that they do not identify the underlying problems or the root causes of back pain, I find it difficult to recommend them, and highly doubt if desired long-term results can be achieved. In some rare cases, surgery can be conducted. Various surgical procedures can be adopted. They include fusion, artificial disk, partially removing a vertebra, and discectomy. Conclusion Various approaches, such as the modern medication and the traditional methods, can be used in treating back pain. However, none of these treatments identify and address the underlying issues. Besides, they have limitations and side effects. Medication, as seen herein, is not the best way of dealing with back pain. Also, the modern medicine is based on the traditional approach. Both the approaches confront the body system with some competitive forces, which in turn, make the body to change. In simple terms, change is forced in the body. The traditional approach does not perfectly work as well due to its failure to identify the root causes of the problem. Medications have side effects coupled with drug interactions. Physical therapy and exercise add stress to the already over-stressed joints and muscles, while surgery may lead to other problems in the long run. Therefore, to effectively deal with the back pain, one needs to identify the cause and design perfect ways of handling it, rather than just handling the symptoms. A safe, drug-free approach is the best option. Massage therapy has been seen to be effective, though with limitations. If postural dysfunctions and muscle imbalances can be identified and massage applied, great results can be seen. Finally, specific target action plan should be identified to correct the pain and restore body harmony. Works Cited CAS, 2003. Chronic Back Pain. Center on an Aging Society, No. 8. Web. 13 April 2012. http://ihcrp.georgetown.edu/agingsociety/pdfs/backpain.pdf EUROPEAN GUIDELINES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE NONSPECIFIC LOW BACK PAIN IN PRIMARY CARE. Web. 13 April 2012. http://www.backpaineurope.org/web/files/WG1_Guidelines.pdf EUROPEAN GUIDELINES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC NON-SPECIFIC LOW BACK PAIN. Web. 13 April 2012. http://www.backpaineurope.org/web/files/WG2_Guidelines.pdf Mayo Clinic staff, 2010. Back Pain. Web. 13 April 2012. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/back-pain/DS00171 MNT, 2009. What Is Back Pain? What Causes Back Pain? Medical News Today. Web. 13 April 2012. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/172943.php Mueller, B., 2002. Massage Therapy for Lower Back Pain. Spine-Health. Web. 14 April 2012. http://www.spine-health.com/wellness/massage-therapy/massage-therapy-lower-back-pain Palkhivala, A., 2001. Massage May Be Best Approach for Back Pain. The WebMD. Web. 14 April 2012. http://www.webmd.com/back-pain/news/20010531/massage-may-be-best-approach-for-back-pain Savigny P, et al., 2009. Low Back Pain: early management of persistent non-specific low back pain. London: National Collaborating Centre for Primary Care and Royal College of General Practitioners. Web. 13 April 2012. http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/11887/44334/44334.pdf Shiel, W.C., 2012. Low Back Pain. emedicine heath. Web. 13 April 2012. http://www.emedicinehealth.com/back_pain/article_em.htm
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
MySQL is an open source Relational Database Management System based on the Structured Query Language (SQL). It is very fast reliable and flexible Database Management System based on relation model that is developed to manage large volumes of data at very high speed with security. MySQL can be used for verity of applications but it is one of the most popular RDBMS used for the web applications on the Internet. It is referred as open source because it can be run on different platform such as Unix, Linux, Windows, OS/2, and etc. It is possible for anyone to use and modify the software. If you wish, you may study the source code and change it to suit your needs. MySQL is based on a client/server model; its database packageÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Transaction Control The purpose of Transaction Control is to provide transactions and concurrency. Transaction allows the users to manipulate data atomically and concurrency where multiple concurrent users can access the data in a consistent way. The transaction control subsystem consists of Transaction Manager and Lock Manager components. The transaction manager takes care of atomic manipulation of data by temporarily storing copies of data. The lock manager sets locks in tables or records of a table. Recovery Manager The Recovery Manager is responsible for keeping copies of data and record in which changes has been done. So that in case of primary data files crash, the database can be restored in a consistent state as just before the crash occurred. Its sub-system consists of the Logger that records any modifications done in the database in log files, and Backup Recovery through which a DBA can save copies of the data files that can be used later in concurrence with log files to restore the database in a consistent state. Introduction to Basic SQL statements As we have discussed that, most commercial RDBMSÃ¢â¬â¢s use the Structured Query Language (SQL) to access the database. SQL (Structured Query Language) is a standard language for making interactive queries from and updating aShow MoreRelatedThe Management Of The Production Essay1638 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 PROJECT SUMMARY: The management of the production is done by the production manager manually which is a difficult process. The Project deals with the development of the computerized system for maintaining the regular records. The Project consists of various forms and developed with the help of the PHP Programming. The system has a module called Operation, which consists of the details of all employees that is needed to be filled in the form. The other module called the ProductRead MoreDatabase Management System Software ( Dbms )1557 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction Database management system software (DBMS) is the software that can operate on the front and back end of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s database. As do the database requirements of an organization differ, so do the types of DBMS software. The type of DBMS software required can often be narrowed down to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s size and industry (Mohamed 2016). Currently, the top three DBMSs are Oracle, MySQL, and Microsoft SQL Server (Ã¢â¬Å"Microsoft SQL Server vs. MySQL vs. Oracle ComparisonÃ¢â¬ 2016). Read MoreAdvantages of MySQL over Oracle Essay1336 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAdvantages of MySQL over Oracle: MySQL is a fast, reliable, robust and open source database system that has a large number of features too offer. Administration and security are effective and are easily setup. 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ENGINEERING COLLEGE, RAJKOT Gujarat Technological University Ahmedabad TABLE OF CONTENTS Certificate from college. Completion certificate Certificate obtain by plagiarism Acknowledgement Abstract Table of Contents Chapter : 1 Introduction 1.1 Project Summary 1.2 Purpose: Goals Objectives 1.3 Scope 1.4 Literature and review Chapter : 2 System Analysis and design 2.1 Study of Current System 2.2 Problem and Weaknesses of Current System 2.3 Requirements of New System 2.4 FunctionsRead MoreSnipe-It Essay1397 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction Snipe-IT is a free and open source IT assets management web application that can be used for tracking licenses, accessories, consumables, and components. It is written in PHP language and uses MySQL to stote its data. It is a cross-platform application that works on all the major operating system like, Linux, Windows and Mac OS X. It is easily integrates with Active Directory, LDAP and supports two-factor authentication with Google authenticator. In this tutorial, we will learn howRead MoreApplication Of A Project Report Essay1509 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessubject. At the end, we offer my regards and blessings to all of those who supported us in any respect during the completion of the project and to our college for providing a resources and materials. CHAPTER: 1 INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTON 1.1 Project Summery This project is all about creating website that will serve as platform for video games news, updated, release dates, and their detailed information. It will also
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
The researcher give their deepest and sincerest gratitude to Almighty God for the guidance and blessings in doing this study and for the knowledge and strength in all their understanding. The researcher wish to acknowledge Mrs. Riza G. Amarillo, our research paper writing adviser and consultant for her concern and encouragement in giving wonderful suggestions which enable the researchers to pursue the completion of this study. All respondents who contributed a lot of help to the researchers in gathering the needed data and information. To the researchers special someone who gave them inspiration; and last but not the least to their parents, brothers, and sisters for their financial support in the conduct of this study. Title: DOTA: its effect to education. Thesis Statement: People get addicted to DOTA because they enjoy making bets while playing it. 1. Introduction There are many students and even some young professionals are addicted to Defense of the Ancients or DOTA. This is a kind of computer games that can be played by many players and is one of the most popular games among young students. Many students are getting addicted to this game that they even spend long hours inside the computer shop just playing this game. There are studies that getting addicted in playing computer games greatly affect studentÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in school besides of spending most of their money to rent a computer where they can play DOTA with their classmates. What makes the game more exciting is the deal to pay those who will win the game and it is already becoming a form of gambling. The time spent on the computer, playing DOTA games or cruising the internet reaches a point that it harms a child or adult family and social relationships, or disrupts school or work life, that person maybe caught in a cycle of addiction. Like other addictions, DOTA game has replaced friends and family as the source of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional life. Increasingly, to feel good, the addicted person spends more time playing video games or searching the internet. When a person spends up to ten hours a day or more rearranging or sending files playing games, surfing the net, visiting chat rooms, instant messaging, and reading emails. They are spending more or less seventy to eighty hours a week online with the computer and it will probably result to major social, school and work disruptions. It can lead to irresponsibility and it triggers the player to lose his/her temper and values. Besides due to playing eating is irrelevant and it can lead to ADDICTION. 2. Meaning of Addiction Addiction is the continued use of a mood altering substance or behavior despite adverse dependency consequences, or a neurological impairment leading to such behaviors. Addictions can include, but are not limited to, drug abuse, exercise abuse, sexual activity and gambling. Classic hallmarks of addiction include impaired control over substances or behavior, preoccupation with substance or behavior, continued use despite consequences, and denial. Habits and patterns associated with addiction are typically characterized by immediate gratification (short-term reward), coupled with delayed deleterious effects (long-term costs). Physiological dependence occurs when the body has to adjust to the substance by incorporating the substance into its normal functioning. This state creates the conditions of tolerance and withdrawal. Tolerance is the process by which the body continually adapts to the substance and requires increasingly larger amounts to achieve the original effects. Withdrawal refers to physical and psychological symptoms experienced when reducing or discontinuing a substance that the body has become dependent on. Symptoms of withdrawal generally include but are not limited to anxiety, irritability, intense cravings for the substance, nausea, hallucinations, headaches, cold sweats, and tremors. The condition of being habitually or compulsively occupied with or involved in something. A habitual or compulsive involvement in an activity, such as gambling being abnormally tolerant to and dependent on something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming. Computer addiction is a mental illness which causes the excessive use of computers to the extent that it interferes with daily life. Excessive use may explain problems in social interaction, mood, personality, work ethic, relationships, thought processes, or sleep deprivation. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders does not include a diagnosis for such a disease. The term ? computer addiction? originated long before the Internet. Some people develop bad habits in their computer use that cause them significant problems in their lives. The types of behavior and negative consequences are similar to those of known addictive disorders. Internet addiction disorder (IAD), or, more broadly, Internet overuse, problematic computer use or pathological computer use, is excessive computer use that interferes with daily life. These terms avoid the term addiction and are not limited to any single cause. IAD was originally proposed as a disorder in a satirical hoax by Ivan Goldberg, M.D. , in 1995. He took pathological gambling as diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as his model for the description of IAD. It is not, however, included in the current DSM as of 2009. IAD receives coverage in the press, and possible future classification as a psychological disorder continues to be debated and researched. Online activities which, if done in person, would normally be considered troublesome, such as compulsive gambling, or shopping, are sometimes called net compulsions. Other habits such as reading, playing computer games, or watching a staggering amount of internet videos or movies are all troubling only to the extent that these activities interfere with normal life. Supporters of disorder classification often divide IAD into subtypes by activity, such as excessive, overwhelming, or inappropriate pornography use, gaming, online social networking, blogging, email, or Internet shopping. Opponents note that compulsive behaviors may not themselves be addictive. DOTA like drugs, is simply addicting for some. What is addiction anyway? Microsoft Encarta defines addiction as the habitual repetition of excessive behavior that a person is unable or unwilling to stop, despite its harmful consequences. People can be physically addicted to a drug, meaning they may suffer ill physical effects if they stop taking the drug. They also can be psychologically addicted to drugs, gambling, or other behaviors, meaning they feel overwhelmingly deprived if they attempt to stop. Although there is no major documentation yet if DOTA creates hallucination and other symptoms when one is deprived of it but twitchy fingers and DOTA talks are a common occurrence. Causes of Addiction 3a. Radiation The increased use of computers in the work place has brought about the development of a number of health concerns. Many individuals who work at a computer report a high level of job-related complaints and symptoms, including ocular discomfort, muscular strain and stress. The level of discomfort appears to increase with the amount of computer use. Visual discomfort and related symptoms occurring in computer workers must be recognized as a growing health problem. The complex of eye and vision problems related to near work experienced during computer use has been termed computer vision syndrome. Many individuals who work at a computer experience eye-related discomfort and/or visual problems. However, based on current evidence it is unlikely that the use of computers causes permanent changes or damage to the eyes or visual system. This report will review the factors relating to eye and vision problems associated with computer work and provide recommendations for preventing or reducing their development. Viewing a computer screen is different than viewing a typewritten or printed page. Often the letters on a computer screen are not as precise or sharply defined, the level of contrast of the letters to the background is reduced and the presence of glare and reflections on the screen may make viewing more difficult. Viewing distances and angles used for computer work are also often different from those commonly used for other reading or writing tasks. As a result, the eye focusing and eye movement requirements for computer work can place additional demands on the visual system. Older workers particularly may find adjusting to these working requirements difficult. Eyeglasses or contact lenses prescribed for general use may not be adequate for computer work. Specific occupational lenses prescribed to meet the unique demands of computer work may be needed. Special lens designs, lens powers or lens tints or coatings may help to maximize visual abilities and comfort. Computer workers who receive eye examinations and occupational eyewear have reported improved comfort and resolution of their symptoms. The quality and efficiency of their work have also been improved. Some computer workers may experience problems with eye focusing or eye coordination that cannot be adequately corrected with eyeglasses or contact lenses. A program of optometric vision therapy designed to treat specific binocular vision dysfunctions may be needed. A preventive approach to reducing visual stress from computer work incorporates the use of rest or alternate task breaks throughout the workday. Many computer tasks are repetitive and can become stressful both mentally and physically after an extended period of continuous work. Occasional rest or alternate task breaks are helpful to combat fatigue and stress. They provide an opportunity to incorporate different and less visually demanding tasks into the work regimen. Specific rest or task breaks should be based on the individual visual needs of the operator. 3b. Peer Influence Peer pressure is the influence exerted by a peer group or an individual, encouraging other individuals to change their attitudes, values, or behaviors in order to conform to group norms. Social groups affected include membership groups, in which individuals are formally members (such as political parties and trade unions), or social cliques in which membership is not clearly defined. A person affected by peer pressure may or may not want to belong to these groups. They may also recognize dissociative groups with which they would not wish to associate, and thus they behave adversely concerning that groups behaviors. Peer pressure is most commonly associated with youth, in part because most youth spend large amounts of time in schools and other fixed groups that they do not choose and are seen as lacking the maturity to handle pressure from friends. Also, young people are more willing to behave negatively towards those who are not members of their own peer groups. Peer pressure can also have positive effects when people are pressured toward positive behavior, such as volunteering for charity or excelling in academics or athletics, by their peers. This is most commonly seen in youths who are active in sports or other extracurricular activities where conformity with ones peer group is strongest. Pressure, planned or unplanned, exerted by peers to influence personal behavior. Peer pressure is the influence of a social group on an individual. When you were a little kid, your parents usually chose your friends, putting you in playgroups or arranging play dates with certain children they knew and liked. Now that youre older, you decide who your friends are and what groups you spend time with. Your friends Ã¢â¬â your peers Ã¢â¬â are people your age or close to it who have experiences and interests similar to yours. You and your friends make dozens of decisions every day, and you influence each others choices and behaviors. This is often positive Ã¢â¬â its human nature to listen to and learn from other people in your age group. As you become more independent, your peers naturally play a greater role in your life. As school and other activities take you away from home, you may spend more time with peers than you do with your parents and siblings. Youll probably develop close friendships with some of your peers, and you may feel so connected to them that they are like an extended family. Besides close friends, your peers include other kids you know who are the same age Ã¢â¬â like people in your grade, church, sports team, or community. These peers also influence you by the way they dress and act, things theyre involved in, and the attitudes they show. Peer conformity, sometimes referred to as peer pressure, occurs when individuals choose to adopt the attitudes or behaviors of others because of real or imagined pressure. In Western cultures, as the amount of time spent with peers increases, so does the influence and support they provide. 3c. Gambling Gambling is the wagering of money or something of material value (referred to as the stakes) on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning additional money and/or material goods. Typically, the outcome of the wager is evident within a short period. Gambling is also a major international commercial activity, with the legal gambling market totaling an estimated $335 billion in 2009. In other forms, gambling can be conducted with materials which have a value, but are not real money. For example, players of marbles games might wager marbles, and likewise games of Pogs or Magic: The Gathering can be played with the collectible game pieces (respectively, small discs and trading cards) as stakes, resulting in a meta-game regarding the value of a players collection of pieces. The act of playing for stakes in the hope of winning (including the payment of a price for a chance to win a prize) preoccupied with the pursuit of pleasure and especially games of chance. Betting (wagering) that must result either in a gain or a loss. Gambling is neither risk taking in the sense of speculation (assumption of substantial short-term risk) nor investing (acquiring property or assets for securing long-term capital gains). It also differs from insurance which may reduce or eliminate the risk of loss but offers no legitimate chance of gain. An activity characterized by a balance between winning and losing that is governed by a mixture of skill and chance 4. Solution to Addiction 4a. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t focus on computer games, play sports DOTA takes away the healthy physical activity from the basketball games or team sports that the youth is driven away from. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a theft that creates a diversion from sports and negatively diverts real sports that is, from taking place. To reduce the growing population of obese children in the world the parents need to encourage sports and outside play over video games. Kids in the world today know little about sports and the rules. But spend more time playing video games then outside being active. What happened to neighborhood hide and seek, or pick-up basketball games with other neighborhood kids. Today children are more interested in video games, computers and television, and parents are afraid of letting their children run around the streets because of kidnappings. When I was a kid I had video games but I spent most of my time outside playing. Being outside with the fresh air and the sunshine was the best thing for me. In this year today there are a lot of kids who donÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to play sports or are too obese to play sports. Take basketball for instants I personally think itÃ¢â¬â¢s one of the easiest sports besides football. The rules are simple in basketball, dribble the ball one hand at a time, and donÃ¢â¬â¢t carry the ball. Also in basketball itÃ¢â¬â¢s up to you and your team to score as many points as you can. But in the game of basketball like any other sport you have to work as a team. One of the major benefits you get from playing sports understands how to work really good with other people. In my mind TEAM means Together Everyone Achieves More, which means if you try to do everything by yourself you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t get very far. Video games donÃ¢â¬â¢t teach you how to work with others. Also most of the video games today prompt violence and use profanity. The majority of kids are no longer interested in physical activity. There are a certain percentage of kids today that are addicted to video games. I believe that at a youth age kids shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be addicted to anything. Video games in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society have a negative influence on kids because it separates them from reality. We no longer live in a society where kids run around actively throughout the neighborhood. Late night soccer games, pickup games in the park, and innocence children are gone in sports. Today children are more interested in video game, computers and television, and parents are afraid of letting their children run around the streets because of kidnapping. The majority of kids are no longer interested in physical activity. Why do most kids enjoy video games rather than sports? Video games were first introduced in the 70Ã¢â¬â¢s and have been gaining popularity ever since. By the end of the decade video games had already become a preferred activity for kids. According to a recent study by Harris Interactive 1,178 children in the U.S, almost 9 percent of children gamers are pathologically or clinically Ã¢â¬Å"addicted to video games. However, 23 percent of youth say that they have felt addicted to video games, with about one-third of males and a little more than one in 10 females reporting the sensation. 4b. Focus on reading books Anyone who has played video games, or has watched someone playing video games, can easily see the level of focus required, and the endless hours a gamer spends very much interacting with this form of entertainment. Why? What is it about this medium that keeps kids glued to it in a way few things can? Hour after hour. And what do they say when they finish? That game was too short. The key thing is that video games are goal oriented. You set out to achieve something. And you know what that goal is from the off. Give the player a clear aim, make it difficult to achieve, let them go. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s all it takes to get them hooked. Yes, flashy visuals and cool kill cams can make fan boysÃ¢â¬â¢ hearts flutter. But some of the most popular games are the most simple, from Pacman to Tetris to Angry Birds. These arenÃ¢â¬â¢t just useful questions to ask if youÃ¢â¬â¢re writing childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s books, or thrillers, they apply in some degree to any narrative structure. Learning how to build scenes so the reader is ever more interested and more invested in reaching the end is a delicate balancing act. If itÃ¢â¬â¢s too easy and predictable, they will get bored. If itÃ¢â¬â¢s too complicated and impossible to navigate, that will also put them off. Obviously there are big differences between books and video games, but one thing should be the same for both gamers and readersÃ¢â¬âthey should reach the end and feel like they want more. 4c. Learn to save money Learning to save money is important for those experiencing income loss, out-of-control-debt or simply a desire for increased frugality. Whether you want to save money for long-term investing, to buy a new car or home, or just to increase your overall wealth, its important to go about it in the best way possible. Follow these tips when learning to save money. Teaching your children how to save and spend money helps them become smart consumers and financially responsible adults. Start the process when your children are very young by explaining the various values of coins and bills and teaching them that cash is exchanged for goods and services. As your children grow into teenagers, explain checking and savings accounts, credit cards, credit ratings and various types of investments so they have a comprehensive understanding of what it means to make smart financial decisions. 5. Conclusion 5a. Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer Advantages: 1. It helps you automate various tasks that you cannot do manually. 2. It helps you organize your data and information. 3. It has much more computing and calculating power then an ordinary human. 4. It may help your work to be a lot easier. It can help you communicate with friends, coworkers and other contacts. 6. It has many search engines to help you find information quickly. Disadvantages: 1. It can have negative effects on your social life and interactions with other people if you do not maintain the balance between time online and offline. 2. It may have a negative effect on your eyesight due to radiation. 3. It may cause pimples and wrinkles. 4. It may distract you from your studies. 5. Too much time in front of monitor may adversely affect your eyesight. 6. Sitting in front of a computer for too long without exercise can cause a weight gain. 5b. Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet Advantages 1. Information. The biggest benefit offered by the Internet is information. It functions as a valuable resource of information. You can find any type of information on any subject with the help of the search engines like Yahoo and Google. 2. Communication. The primary goal of the Internet is communication. It has done extremely well in this field, however the development process is still going on to make it more dependable and quick. By sending an e-mail, we can contact a person who is physically present thousand miles away within the fraction of a secondÃ¢â¬â¢s time. 3. Entertainment. Internet functions as a popular medium of entertainment. A wide variety of entertainment including video games, music, movies, chat room, news and others can be accessed through the Internet. 4. E-commerce. E-commerce is the idea that is implemented for any form of commercial strategy or business transactions that entails transmission of data from one corner of the world to another. E-commerce has become a fantastic option through which you can shop anything. Formation of communities Internet helps in formation of communities or forums. Here a number of people can participate in different types of debates and discussions, express their views and gather valuable knowledge. 6. Services. A variety of services are offered via Internet, for example job searching, online banking, buying movie tickets, hotel reservations and consultation services etc. When you avail these services offline, they become more expensive. Disadvantages 1. Spamming. Spamming denotes distribution of unsolicited e-mails in large numbers. They are meaningless and they unnecessarily block the whole system. These activities are treated as illegal. 2. Theft of personal details while using the Internet, there is high probability that your personal details like name, address and credit card number may be accessed by con artists and used for fraudulent purposes. 3. Pornography. Pornography is definitely harmful for your children. There are numerous pornographic sites available over the Internet and watching any of those can have very bad influence on the mental health of your children. Virus threat. Virus is a program that interrupts the usual operation of your personal computer system. PCs linked to the Internet have high probability of virus attacks and as a result of this your hard disk can crash, giving you a lot of trouble. 5c. Advantages and Disadvantages of DOTA Advantages 1. Dota helps the youth who are playing this game to become mentally alert, cooperative, and strategic. 2. It increases their knowledge in mathematics by computing the golds, damages, magic and physical reduction present in the game. 3. Playing DOTA is for the youth to communicate teenagers who initially donÃ¢â¬â¢t know each other can easily be friends. Disadvantages 1. It can lead to irresponsibility. 2. It triggers the player to lose his/her temper and values. 3. Due to playing, eating is irrelevant 4. It can lead you to addiction! 5d. Advantages and Disadvantages of Facebook Advantages 1. We can keep in contact with our relatives or friends who live far away. 2. We can know what happens in our surroundings. 3. It can create fun and its rapidity of learning knowledge. 4. It can use as love attraction. Disadvantages 1. Waste of life! 2. Ruining your professional life. 3. It can create intrigues, fights etc. 4. It can lessen the dignity of a person. 6. Recommendation 6a. For problematic parents 1. Limit Internet access to public areas at least for certain times of the day and avoid having televisions and computer games in bedrooms. 2. Plan screen time, whether television or Internet use. For television, those are easy in the era of DVRs. Sit and watch a show you like then stop watching. For the Internet, which is more free-flowing, use an egg timer? Do the same for video games. Stress to children that they shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t put anything on the Internet that they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t want on the home page of Google, YouTube, ESPN, StLtoday. com, etc. (Nothing on the Internet is truly private. ) 4. During exam times or other times when kids need to avoid screen time, delete games or programs or install passwords so the temptation isnÃ¢â¬â¢t there. Reinstall/remove passwords when exams or a report are complete. If a child is having difficulty with the Internet or screen time and none of the above recommendations are helping, contact your pediatrician. For addicted students 1. Complete a self-assessment test that will indicate whether you have truly problematic internet addiction. The Center for Internet Addiction has a free, online self-reporting questionnaire that measures internet habits, feelings, and emotions relating to internet usage. 2. Make a list of the ways that your internet usage may be disrupting your life. For example, is it interfering with relationships? Do you neglect chores or tasks that need to be completed because of your internet usage? Are you lying to others about your internet usage? These are clear signs of internet addiction symptoms. 3. Identify any specific websites or internet applications that are consuming the majority of your time when surfing online. A few examples or pornographic websites, web chat rooms, specific internet forums, or online games such as MMORPG. These things may be contributing to your internet addiction. 4. Adapt new time patterns for internet usage. The Center for Internet Addiction recommends practicing the opposite of your internet habits currently. In other words, fill the time that you would usually be spending online with tasks and chores that need to be accomplished. For example, if you use the internet on weekday mornings, reverse the schedule and only use the internet during weekend mornings. 5. Set clear goals for your internet usage to break the internet addiction. If you currently use the internet for forty hours every week, make a goal of twenty to twenty-five hours per week. Write these goals down in a journal or somewhere where you can see them everyday. 6. Compose a schedule of allowed internet usage times and set alarm clocks and other reminders of when you should log off. Try to limit yourself to 2 hours at a time maximum for each period of internet usage. Post this schedule near your computer and dont forget to set your alarm or reminder. 7. Make a list of the negative consequences of your internet addiction and some of the benefits of regaining control of your internet habits. Keep this list in your pocket or in your wallet and take it out as frequent reminders of why you need to cutÃ down on your internet usage. This will help when trying to reach the goals you have set. 8. Take up new hobbies or spend more time outdoors to avoid the internet temptation. Exercising, jogging, swimming, biking, hiking, and going out with friends are all great things to do instead of spending time on the internet. In addition, by spending time doing other things your mind will be less consumed with your internet habits and you will reduce your internet addiction. 9. Consider seeking help from a licensed counselor or professional psychologist. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy can help with the thoughts and feeling associated with an internet addiction and can help with successful goal setting and reaching. 10. Join a local support group in your community for internet addiction. If there are no specific internet addiction support groups, join an addiction support group anyway to see if they can help. 11. Communicate openly with family members and friends about your internet addiction. Ask them to help encourage you with your goals; family members can even help by proactively helping you achieve internet usage goals that have been set.